Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Online Information
 About Us
 ADD/ADHD News
 ADD/ADHD Books
 ADDerwards
 Creative ADDers
 Donate
 Events
 GO Games
 Information
 Links
 Natural Remedies
 Research
 Resources
 Support Groups
 Whats New


ADHD SOFTWARE
FREE DVD or CD


FREE DVD or CD

ADD/ADHD Online Information


ADD/ADHD Information

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders World Health Organization, Geneva, 1992

F91.3 Oppositional Defiant Disorder
This type of conduct disorder is characteristically seen in children below the age of 9 or 10 years. It is defined by the presence of markedly defiant, disobedient, provocative behaviour and by the absence of more severe dissocial or aggressive acts that violate the law or the rights of others. The disorder requires that the overall criteria for F91 be met: even severely mischievous or naughty behaviour is not in itself sufficient for diagnosis. Many authorities consider that oppositional defiant patterns of behaviour represent a less severe type of conduct disorder, rather than a qualitatively distinct type. Research evidence is lacking on whether the distinction is qualitative or quantitative. However, findings suggest that, in so far as it is distinctive, this is true mainly or only in younger children. Caution should be employed in using this category, especially in the case of older children. Clinically significant conduct disorders in older children are usually accompanied by dissocial or aggressive behaviour that go beyond defiance, disobedience, or disruptiveness, although, not infrequently, they are preceded by oppositional defiant disorders at an earlier age. The category is included to reflect common diagnostic practice and to facilitate the classification of disorders occurring in young children.

Diagnostic Guidelines
The essential feature of this disorder is a pattern of persistently negativistic, hostile, defiant, provocative, and disruptive behaviour, which is clearly outside the normal range of behaviour for a child of the same age in the same sociocultural context, and which does not include the more serious violations of the rights of others as reflected in the aggressive and dissocial behaviour specified for categories F91.0 and F91.2. Children with this disorder tend frequently and actively to defy adult requests or rules and deliberately to annoy other people. Usually they tend to be angry, resentful, and easily annoyed by other people whom they blame for their own mistakes or difficulties. They generally have a low frustration tolerance and readily lose their temper. Typically, their defiance has a provocative quality, so that they initiate confrontations and generally exhibit excessive levels of rudeness, uncooperativeness, and resistance to authority.

Frequently, this behaviour is most evident in interactions with adults or peers whom the child knows well, and signs of the disorder may not be evident during a clinical interview.

The key distinction from other types of conduct disorder is the absence of behaviour that violates the law and the basic rights of others, such as theft, cruelty, bullying, assault, and destructiveness. The definite presence of any of the above would exclude the diagnosis. However, oppositional defiant behaviour, as outlined in the paragraph above, is often found in other types of conduct disorder. If another type (F91.0-F91.2) is present, it should be coded in preference to oppositional defiant disorder.

Excludes: * conduct disorders including overtly dissocial or aggressive behaviour (F91.0-F91.2)



ICD-10 copyright 1992 by World Health Organization. Internet Mental Health (www.mentalhealth.com) copyright 1995-1997 by Phillip W. Long, M.D.

Back to Information


Custom Search

Home  About Us  ADD/ADHD News  ADDerwards  Advertising  Books  Contact Us  Creative ADDers  Donate

 Events  Forums  Information  Links  Natural Remedies  ADDers.org News  Research  Resources  Search adders.org

 Site Map  Social Stories  Sponsor Events  Student/Researchers  Support Groups  Supporters




Join us on.... Twitter Twitter Facebook Facebook

Home


Attention Deficit Disorder Online Information




ADHD SOFTWARE
FREE DVD or CD


FREE DVD or CD

Share |